Heuristics and biases as sources of negotiators’ errors in the pre-negotiation phase. Review of literature and empirical research



Purpose - Heuristics and biases are simplifying strategies that people (in the analysed issue - negotiators) use  in the decision-making process, even when they can take advantage of supporting tools (e.g. Negotiation Support System), which will allow them to make the optimal choice [Wachowicz, 2006]. Many empirical studies have found that decision makers use heuristics and are biased [Bateman, Zeithaml, 1989; Jackson, Dutton, 1988; Kahneman et al. 1982; Zajac, Bazerman, 1991]. Therefore, the question should be asked: are negotiators, as managers (whose decisions were examined), instead of consciously and intentionally used tools supporting decision-making during negotiations, subject to heuristics and cognitive errors? As the consequence of this general question one may ask the specific research questions: (1) What heuristics do the negotiators undergo? (2) How do heuristics influence the decision-making process? (3) How can heuristics and biases impact be minimized by taking advantage of negotiation support tools?
Research methods - The article is a review of psychological, sociological and management sciences theories, concepts and empirical researches on heuristics and biases. The review was made according to the following categories: (a) theories that recognize the inevitability of heuristics in the decision-making process, (b) theories that attempt to identify opportunities to minimize or even reduce the impact of heuristics on decisions, and (c) those that offer alternative solutions.
Results - The summary highlights those heuristics which might occur in the decision-making process in the pre-negotiation phase.
Originality/value - There is no research exploring the role of specific heuristics and biases in particular stages of negotiations.

Article received on 06 January 2020, accepted on 20 April 2020.

Research carried out as part of a research project No. 2016/21/B/HS4/01583 “Support for bilateral negotiations, taking into account heuristic thinking and cognitive limitations of negotiators” (Agreement No. UMO-2016/21/B/ HS4/01583).


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Article received on 06 January 2020, accepted on 20 April 2020.
Research carried out as part of a research project No. 2016/21/B/HS4/01583 “Support for bilateral negotiations, taking into account heuristic thinking and cognitive limitations of negotiators” (Agreement No. UMO-2016/21/B/ HS4/01583).
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