The balance of payments accounting as a factor for macroeconomic equilibrium achievement in an open economy
Purpose – To study the concept of the balance of payments (BOP) as the main international financial statement of a nation, to identify the causes and effects of its imbalances and the factors of achieving external equilibrium for a national economy, as well. Methods – The theoretical and methodological research is based on systematic, structural and functional analysis, logical abstraction, induction, deduction, as well as comparative and statistical analysis. Approach – The theoretical justification of the relationship between key figures of the balance of payments and the main macroeconomic identities, the research of the balance of payments regulation tools aimed at achieving its steady state as a precondition for open economy equilibrium. Findings – The rationale for choosing the balance of payments regulation policy based on using some theories aimed at searching for an optimal balance or so-called equilibrium between the development of external and internal factors of the economy. Thus, the study has shown that the practical implementation of these theoretical concepts finds its application in various ways of equalizing the balance of payments. The constituent elements of these concepts are the forms of equalization, the level of regulation, the methods and tools of state regulation.